Main bee diseases in Portugal:

review

Authors

  • Cátia Andrea da Silva Martinho Universidade Lusófona de Humanidade e Tecnologias, Lisboa
  • Cristina da Conceição Soares Ferradeira Direção de Serviços de Alimentação e Veterinária, Lisboa
  • Joana Araújo Nobre Catita Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa
  • Ana Isabel Faustino-Rocha Universidade de Évora, Évora

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18378/aab.11.9689

Keywords:

Apicultural pathology, Bee health, Beekeeping, Apis mellifera

Abstract

The bee is the most important pollinator in the world. Threats to the health of bees continue to increase worldwide, contributing to the decline in their productivity. Bees are susceptible to a huge variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and mites. This work aimed to present a compilation of the main parasitic, bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases of bees in Portugal, describing the etiological agents involved, their pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control. The implementation of sanitary measures and good management practices is fundamental for the prevention and control of diseases and constitutes one of the main challenges of modern beekeeping.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ALBO, G. N.; REYNALDI, J.; CÓRDOBA.S. Chalkbrood: pathogenesis and the interaction with honeybee defenses. International Journal of Environmental & Agriculture Research, v.3, p. 71-80, 2017.

ALONSO-SALCES, R.; CUGNATA, N.; GUASPARI, E.; PELLEGRINI, M.; AUBONE, I.; PIANO, F.; ANTUNEZ, K.; FUSELLI, S. Natural strategies for the control of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agente of american foulbrood in honey bees: a review. Apidologie, v.48, p. 387-400, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-016-0483-1

ALI, M. A. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, v.1, n. 2, p.69-83, 2012.

BAILÓN ENCARNACIÓN, M. Repercusión potencial en la cabaña apícola española de agentes nosógenos detectados en colonias de “Apis mellifera iberiensis”. 2013. 239f. Tesis doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 2013.

BAKI, A. A. S. A.; MARES, M.; DKHIL, M. A.; QURAISHY, S. A. First detection of Nosema sp., microsporidian parasites of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. King Saud University King Saud University Science, v.28, p. 396-399, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2016.05.005

BEIMS, H.; BUNK, B.; ERLER, S.; MOHR, K. I.; SPROER, C.; PRADELLA, S.; GUNTHER, G.; ROHDE, M.; OHE, W.; STEINERT, M. Discovery of Paenibacillus larvae ERIC V: Phenotypic and genomic comparison to genotypes ERIC I-IV reveal different inventories of virulence factors which correlate with epidemiological prevalences of American Foulbrood. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, v.310, p. 1-11, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2020.151394

BERNARDI, S.; VENTURINO, E. Viral epidemiology of the adult Apis mellifera infested by the Varroa destructor mite. Heliyon, v. 2, p. 1-43, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00101

CABO, P.; DIAS, L. G.; VILAS-BOAS, M.; GOMES, M. A Apicultura em Modo de Produção Biológico: Identificação dos principais entraves à sua expansão. Alimentar mentalidades, vencer a crise global - Atas do ESADR, p. 2215-2235. 2013.

CAPRI, E.; MARCHIS, A. Bee health in Europe - Facts & figures 2013. Opera Research Center. 2013.

CARRECK, N.; ANDREE, M.; BRENT, C.; FOSTER, D.; DADE, H.; ELLIS, J.; HATJINA, F.; ENGLESDORP, D. Standard methods for Apis mellifera anatomy and dissection. Journal of Apicultural Research. v. 52, p.1-39, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.03

CARRILLO-TRIPP, J.; DOLEZAL, A.; GOBLIRSCH, M.; MILLER, W.; TOTH, A.; BONNING, T. In vivo and in vitro infection dynamics of honey bee viruses. Scientific Reports, v.6, p. 1-12, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22265

CASTAGNINO, G.; MATEOS, G.; MEANA, A.; MONTEJO, L.; ITURRALDE, Z.; VICENTE, L.; SIMÓN, C.; TERESA. M. Etiology, symptoms and prevention of chalkbrood disease: a literature review. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal. v.21, p. 1-16, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1519-9940210332020

CENTRO DE COMPETÊNCIAS DA APICULTURA E BIODIVERSIDADE (CCAB). Plano de ação, Castelo Branco, Portugal. 2018. 26p.

CLÉMENT, H.; ROTGÉ.M.P. Tratado de apicultura y los productos de la colmena. 1.ed. Espanha: ediciones Omega, S.A, 2012. 528p.

CONFEDERAÇÃO DOS AGRICULTORES DE PORTUGAL (CAP). Manual de sanidade apícola, Portugal. 2007. 36p.

COULONA, M.; SCHURRA, F.; MARTELA, A.; COUGOULEA, M.; BÉGAUDA, A.; MANGONIA, P.; DALMONB, A.; ALAUXB, C.; CONTEB, Y.; THIÉRYA, R.; CHABERTA, M.; DUBOIS, E. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. p.10-18, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2017.10.009

DEGRANDI-HOFFMAN, G.; CHEN, YC. Nutrition, immunity and viral infections in honey bees. Current Opinion in Insect Science, v. 10, p. 170-176, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2015.05.007

DENMARK, H.; CROMROY, H.; SANFORD, M. Honey bee tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Arachnida: Acari: Tarsonemidae). DPI Entomology Circular of Florida University, IFASExtension, v.267. p. 1-3. 2000.

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E VETERINÁRIA (DGAV). Abelhas. Disponível em: <https://www.dgav.pt/animais/conteudo/recursos-geneticos-animais/racas-autoctones/abelhas/>. Acedido em 08 de outubro. 2023.

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E VETERINÁRIA (DGAV). Programa Sanitário Apícola. Portugal. 2020.

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E VETERINÁRIA (DGAV). Programa Sanitário Apícola. Portugal. 2019.

DIREÇÃO GERAL DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E VETERINÁRIA (DGAV). Programa Sanitário Apícola. Portugal. 2016.

DIVYA, K.; RANA, B.; SHARMA, H.; CHAUHAN, A. Preliminary studies on Nosema ceranae: a microsporidian infecting Apis mellifera in India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, v.6, p. 62-65, 2018.

DUTTO, M.; FERRAZZI, P. Megaselia rufipes (Diptera: Phoridae): a new cause of facultative parasitoidism in Apis mellifera. Journal of Apicultural Research, v.53, p. 141-145, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.53.1.15

ELLIS, J.; NALEN, C. Varroa mite, Varroa destructor anderson and trueman (Arachnida: Acari: Varroidae). Entomology and Nematology Department. UF/IFAS Extension. p. 1-3, 2019.

ERBAN, T.; LEDVINKA, O.; KAMLER, M.; HORTOVA, B.; NESVORNA, M.; TYL, J.; TITERA, D.; MARKOVIC, M.; HUBERT, J. Bacterial community associated with worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) affected by European foulbrood. PeerJ - Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences, v. 5, p. 3816, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3816

ERBAN, T.; SOPKO, B.; KADLIKOVA, K.; TALACKO, P.; HARANT, K. Varroa destructor parasitism has a greater effect on proteome changes than the deformed wing virus and activates TGF-β signaling pathways. Scientific Reports, v.9, p. 1-19, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45764-1

FELICIOLI, A. La Senotainia tricuspis, mosca presente in Italia. APIMARCA, v.2, p. 1- 4, 2012.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO). Main bee diseases: good beekeeping practices - Thematic catalogue for smallholder farmers to promote innovation. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2018. 46p.

GAY, J.; MENKHOFF.I. El gran libro de las abejas. 1.ed. Alemanha: Fackelträger, 2014. 320p.

GLAVINIC, U.; STANKOVIC, B.; DRASKOVIC, V.; STEVANOVIX, J.; PETROVIC, T.; LAKIC, N.; STANIMIROVIC, Z. Dietary amino acid and vitamin complex protects honey bee from immunosuppression caused by Nosema ceranae. Plos One, v.12, p. 1-18, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187726

HADDAD, N.; ADJLANE, N.; AYAD, W.; SHEBL, M.; SABA, M.; ALBABA, I.; OBEID, D.; SABAH, M.; GIUST, M.; FELICIOLI, A. Presence and infestation rate of Senotainia tricuspis (Meigen) (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) on honey bees in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Apicultural Research, v.54, p. 121-122, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2015.1099988

HAMIDA, B.; COLIN, M.; BALL, B.; KILANI, M. Enemies of bees. 1.ed. Zaragoza, España: Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Mediterraneennes – CIHEAM. 1999. 147- 165p.

HENRIQUES, D.; LOPES, A.; FERREIRA, H.; NEVES, C.; PINTO, M. Composição genética das populações de abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L.) da Macaronésia. Instituto Politécnico de Bragança. 2019.

HERNÁNDEZ, R.; BARTOLOME, C.; CHEJANOVSKY, N.; CONTE, Y.; DALMON, A.; DUSSAUBAT, C.; PALENCIA, P.; MEANA, A.; PINTO, M.; SOROKER, V.; HIGES, M. Nosema ceranae in Apis mellifera: a 12 years. Environmental Microbiology, v.20, p. 1302-1329, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14103

JARA, L.; LÓPEZ, D.; MUÑOZ, I.; RÚA, P. Epidemiological Survey of Ascosphaera apis in Small-Scale Migratory Apis mellifera iberiensis Colonies. Sociobiology, v.65, p. 285-290, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v65i2.2685

KANET, T. R.; FAUX, C. M. Honey bee medicine for the veterinary practitioner. USA: Wiley Backwell, 2021. 812p. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119583417

KHEZRI, M.; MOHARRAMI, M.; MODIRROUSTA, H.; TORKAMAN, M.; ROKHZAD, B.; KHANBABAIE, H. Prevalence of American foulbrood in asymptomatic apiaries of Kurdistan, Iran. Veterinary World, v.11, p. 281-285, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2018.281-285

LEBLANC, L.; NEZAMI, S.; YOST, D.; TSOURKAS, P.; AMY, P. Isolation and characterization of a novel phage lysin active against Paenibacillus larvae, a honeybee pathogen. Bacteriophage, v.5, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21597081.2015.1080787

LEVIN, S.; SELA, N.; CHEJANOVSKY, S. Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor. Scientific Reports, v.6, p. 37710, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37710

LOCKE, B.; LOW, M.; FORSGREN, E. An integrated management strategy to prevent outbreaks and eliminate infection pressure of American foulbrood disease in a commercial beekeeping operation. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, v.167, p. 48-52, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.03.023

MALDONADO-GONZÁLEZ, A. P.; TENORIO-BELTRÁN, L. E.; VÁZQUEZ-ROMERO, Y. I.; VILLALOBOS-RODRÍGUEZ, M. A.; VELÁZQUEZ-ORDÓÑEZ, V.; ORTEGA-SANTANA, C.; VALLADARES-CARRANZA, B. Varroasis: enfoque ambiental y económico. Una Revisión. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, v.18, n.9, p. 1-12, 2017.

MAÑES, A.; PASCUAL, M.; HERNÁNDEZ, T. 40 Q&A sobre Sanidad y producción apícola. 1.ed. Madrid, España: SERVET, 2018. 176p.

MARTÍNEZ, J.L. Principales enfermedades de las abejas. 4. ed. Madrid, España: Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación Secretaria General Técnica Centro de Publicaciones, 2019. 255p.

MATOVIC, K.; VIDANOVIC, D.; MANIC, M.; STOJILJKOVIC, M.; RADOJICIC, S.; DEBELJAK, Z.; SEKLER, M.; CIRIC, J. Twenty-five-year study of Nosema spp. in honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Serbia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, v.27, p. 518-523, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.012

MATYSUAK, E.; POPIELA, E.; OWCZAREK, B.; STEFANIAK, K.; JELEN, K.; LODEI, N.; KULA, D.; NEUBERG, J.; MIGDAL, P.; BAGINSKA, N.; ORWAT, F.; DABROWSKA, B.; ROMAN, A.; GÓRSKI, A. Phages in Therapy and Prophylaxis of American Foulbrood – Recent Implications From Practical Applications. Frontiers in Microbiology, v.11, p. 1-16, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01913

MOREIRA, L.; FARINHA, N.; NETO, J.; CASACA, J.; NEVES, A. Apicultura em Portugal –Manual Técnico, 1. ed., Portugal: FNAP – Federação Nacional dos Apicultores de Portugal, 2019. 230p.

MORSE, R.; FLOTTUM, K. Honey bee pests, predators and diseases. 3. ed., Ohio-USA: Root Company, Ohio, USA, 1997. 718p.

MURA, A.; PUSCEDDU, M.; THEODOROU, P.; ANGIONI, A.; FLORIS, I.; PAXTON, R.; SATTA, A. Propolis consumption reduces Nosema ceranae infection of european honey bees (Apis mellifera). Insects, v.11, p. 124, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020124

MURILHAS, A.; CASACA, J. Conviver com a Varroa em Portugal. 1. ed. Évora, Portugal: Universidade de Évora /AGRO 354-2001. Agro 354 / 01, AVAPInt - Apicultura, Varroose, Ambiente e Protecção integrada p.1-35, 2004. 32p.

NAZZI, F.; CONTE, Y. Ecology of Varroa destructor, the major ectoparasite of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Annual Review of Entomology, v.61, p. 417-432, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-010715-023731

NIZAR, H.; ALAA, A.; NOUREDDINE, A.; FARES, K.; OUDDOUMI, S. Diagnosis of Paenibacillus larvae from honeybees in Jordan according to microbiological and chemicals techniques. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, v.9, p. 1-12, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2015.318.329

OIE. Apinae (Infection of honey bees). In: OIE - Terrestrial Animal Health Code – volume 1, 2019. Section 9. 4p.

ORGANIZACIÓN MUNDIAL DE SANIDADE ANIMAL (OIE). Nosemosis de las abejas melíferas. In: OIE – Terrestrial Manual (Manual de las Pruebas de Diagnóstico y de las Vacunas para los Animales Terrestres). 2018. cap.3.2.4. 7p.

OWEN, R. The Australian Beekeeping Manual. 2.ed. Austrália: Exisle Publishing Pty Ltd, 2020. 368p.

PADILLA, F.; FLORES, M.; CAMPANO, F. Control de la Ascosferiosis (Ascosphera apis) mediante el uso de fondos higiénicos de rejilla. Actas Iberoamericanas de Conservación Animal, v.4, p. 289-291, 2014.

PAPIĆC´, B.; DIRICKS, M.; KUSAR, D. Analysis of the Global Population Structure of Paenibacillus larvae and Outbreak Investigation of American Foulbrood Using a Stable wgMLST Scheme. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, v.8, p.1-15, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.582677

PEIXOTO, C.; OLIVEIRA, M.; CARVALHO, C. Current status of Acarapis woodi mite infestaton in Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera in Brazil. Florida Entomologist, v.102, p. 775-777, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1653/024.102.0416

PINTO, M.; CHÁVEZ-GALARZA, J.; HENRIQUES, D. Estrutura Genética da Abelha Ibérica (Apis mellifera iberensis). Revelada por marcadores do DNA mitocondrial e nuclear (SNPs). O Apicultor. 2015.

PIRES, S.; CADAVEZ, V.; VALÉRIO, M. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Senotainia tricuspis (Meigen). World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Apimondia. Standing Commission for Bee Health, v.11, 2011.

PORTUGAL. Ministério da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas. Diário da República n.º 227/2005, Série I-A de 25 de Novembro de 2005. Decreto-Lei 203/20, 2005.

RAMÍREZ, M.; CALDERÓN, R. Situación del pequeño escarabajo, Aethina tumida, en colmenas de abejas africanizadas (Apis mellifera) en Costa Rica: muestreo de apiarios 2014- 2017. Revista Ciencias Veterinarias, v.36, p. 19-26, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15359/rcv.36-1.2

REID, M.; MATHESON, A. Practical beekeeping in New Zeland. 4.ed. New Zeland: Exisle Publishing, 2011. 288p.

REUTER, G.; SPIVAK, M. Honey bee diseases and pests. Department of Entomology and Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minesota, p.1-34, 2016.

RITTER, W.; ESCOBAR, J.E. Enfermedades de las abejas. 1.ed. España: Editorial Acribia S.A., 2001. 154p.

ROTH, M.; WILSON, J.; TIGNOR, K.; GROSS, A. Biology and management of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, v.11, p. 1-8, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmz036

RUBIANO, V. Análisis virológico y epidemiológico del síndrome de despoblamiento de las colmenas en España: estudio de causas y consecuencias. 2016.163f. Tesis doctoral, Universidade Complutense de Madrid. Madrid., España. 2016.

STEPHAN, J.; MIRANDA, J.; FORSGREN, E. American foulbrood in a honeybee colony: spore-symptom relationship and feedbacks. BMC Ecology, v.20, p.1-14, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00283-w

TORRÓNTEGUI, R. A. L. Abejas medicina veterinaria (Spanish Edition). 1. ed. España: Independently published, 2020. 181p.

TRAYNOR, K.; MONDET, F.; MIRANDA, J.; TECHER, M.; KOWALLIK, V.; ODDIE, M.; CHANTAWANNAKUL, P.; MCAFEE, A. Varroa destructor: a complex parasite, crippling honey bees worldwide. Trends in Parasitology, v.7, p. 592-606, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2020.04.004

TUTUN, H.; KOC, N.; KART, A. Plant essential oils used against some bee diseases. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, v.6, p. 34-45, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v6i1.34-45.1502

SULBORSKA, A.; HORECKA, B.; CEBRAT, M.; KOWALCZYLK, M.; SKRZYPEK, T.; KAZIMIERCZAK, W.; TRYTE, M.; BORSUK, G. Microsporidia Nosema spp. - obligate bee parasites are transmitted by air. Scientific Reports, v.9, p. 14376, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50974-8

VALERA, F.; MORACHO, T.; YUAN, H.; MUÑOZ, I.; RÚA, P.; HERNÁNDEZ, R.; CHEN, Y.; HIGES, M. Any role for the dissemination of Nosema spores by the blue-tailed bee-eater Merops philippinus? Journal of Apicultural Research, v.56, p. 262-269, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00218839.2017.1306375

VAQUEIRO, E. M. J. La Sanidad en el Colmenar. 1. ed. España: Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, 2017. 120p.

VIDAL-NAQUET, V. N. Honeybee Veterinary Medicine: Apis mellifera L. 1. ed. United Kingdom: 5m Publishing, 2015. 284p.

VILAREM, C.; PIOU, V.; VOGELWEITH, F.; VÉTILLARD, A. Varroa destructor from the Laboratory to the Field: Control, Biocontrol and IPM Perspectives—A Review. Insects, v.12, p. 800, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090800

WISHNIE, D. C. The veterinarian’s role in honey bee health. Honey bees: a guide for veterinarians. 1.ed. USA: American Veterinary Medical Association, 2017. 56p.

ZEMENE, Z.; BOGALE, B.; DERSO, S.; BELETE, S.; MELAKU, S.; HAILU, H. A review on varroa mites of honey bees. Academic Journal of Entomology, v.8, p.150-159, 2015.

Principais doenças das abelhas Apis em Portugal

Published

2023-10-18

How to Cite

MARTINHO, C. A. da S.; FERRADEIRA, C. da C. S.; CATITA, J. A. N.; FAUSTINO-ROCHA, A. I. Main bee diseases in Portugal:: review. ACTA Apicola Brasilica, [S. l.], v. 11, p. e9689, 2023. DOI: 10.18378/aab.11.9689. Disponível em: https://www.gvaa.com.br/revista/index.php/APB/article/view/9689. Acesso em: 5 mar. 2024.

Issue

Section

REVIEW

Funding data